*1 without taking into account the terrain (differences in height above sea-level), ie. the area is treated as if it were flat, as its projection on the plane, as on the map.
*2 taking into account the elevation difference, that is along the path clamped to the ground, not the map, very approximate. The highest accuracy is achieved when markers are placed at least in the extreme points - the peaks, passes, valleys, points of dramatic inflections.
*3 average slope angle, in brackets when downhill angles taken as positive numbers
*4 or when the same elevation
*5 very approximate, theoretical, calculated on the basis of N: Naismith (1892), for movement downhill slopes > 5° with Aitken (1977) - Langmuir (1984) corrections, T: Tobler's (1993) hiking function. Particularly Tobler's formula is suitable rather only for not very steep slopes. It is strongly recommended to find out the real times verified in the field before the trip to the mountains.
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